Each day before the internet goes down, anti-coup activists in Myanmar pile on to social media and encrypted messaging apps to frantically organize the next day’s protest.
By day, thousands of people across the country join vibrant demonstrations calling for the military, which seized power in a coup on February 1, to hand back power to civilian control and release ousted leader Aung San Suu Kyi. They defiantly bang pots and pans, beat drums, wave creative signs and march en masse through the streets. Government and factory workers have gone on strike to join a growing civil disobedience movement against the takeover.
But when night falls, fear sets in. Communication is difficult because of internet shutdowns ongoing for the past six nights — a digital curfew now coexists with the real curfew imposed in major towns and cities from 8 p.m. to 4 a.m.
The military has justified seizing power by alleging widespread voter fraud took place during the November 2020 election, a claim refuted by the election commission.
Many citizens have told CNN they are terrified of being dragged from their beds in nighttime or early morning raids, which have become frequent occurrences since the military takeover, and detained or charged on the basis of vaguely worded laws commonly used in the country to stifle dissent.
Some protesters, who by day are fearlessly marching through the streets, go into hiding at night, moving from house to house to avoid arrest.
« It’s a mental fight as well as physical, » said Thinzar Shunlei Yi, 29, a prominent human rights activist who went into hiding a few days after the coup. She said not knowing what will happen each night, and at the protest in the day, is a type of « psychological warfare. »
« I don’t want any new generation to experience what we have experienced. I want them to live without fear. »
Sanchaung Bo Bo, Yangon resident
« Every morning we have to check: are we going to this (event)? Because anything can happen on the streets anytime. But outside we feel united and strong, » she said.
She said she protests despite the dangers to « let the people and military know that our current political system is failing » and that Myanmar « needs a new solution » and « framework » that’s inclusive of all people and ethnicities.
From the bigger cities like Yangon and Mandalay, to remote villages, people across the country are protesting against the new military regime, risking arrest for their actions. And while the demonstrations are dominated by young people, like Thinzar Shunlei Yi, who have tasted democracy and don’t want to give it up, they are supported by many in the older generation who remember what it was like under the previous military rule.
In the early hours of February 1, before Myanmar’s coup leaders had officially announced their takeover of the country, a white van pulled up outside Maung Thar Cho’s house in Yangon’s suburbs.
Inside the vehicle, his relative says, were several soldiers and others dressed in civilian clothes.
For three hours the unmarked white van waited outside the home until at 7:30 a.m. the plainclothed personnel came to the door to take Maung Thar Cho away. His family says they were asked to provide a towel to blindfold him, but weren’t told where he was going or why he was being taken.
But Maung Thar Cho, a prominent Burmese writer and history professor, is popular with young people in Myanmar and the speeches he delivered across the country have been widely viewed on YouTube and other social media sites.
One of the officials told the family, « we are just taking him for a while and (will) give some clothes and medicine, and we will be taking care of him, » according to a relative who didn’t want to be named for safety reasons.
« We were very shocked. And we didn’t know what to do, » the relative said. « They didn’t tell us who they were. »
It has been almost 20 days since Maung Thar Cho was detained in the early morning raid, and his family said they have had no contact with him since two phone calls on February 2 and 3, when he reassured them he was being taken care of. They say they still don’t know why he was taken.
« He has never been detained before … (He) has not been very outspoken about the military agenda in the past. He’s been talking in a more scholarly interest in his talks and speeches, » said the relative, who was concerned Maung Thar Cho does not have access to his heart medication.
What happened to Maung Thar Cho was a harbinger of the overnight raids to come — and has been perceived as an early warning of the potential consequences for those who criticize the coup. The relative said they knew of other writers who had also been rounded up in similar raids since the takeover.
« Now we have no purpose and future. So we protest for our democracy and freedom. »
A protester, Yangon
« He has delivered these literary speeches in every corner of the country — (in) villages and small cities. So I think maybe the military was worried about his influence, » the relative said.
Burmese human rights organization, Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP), on Thursday said it had verified 521 arrests related to the coup since February 1 — 477 of those people remained in detention or faced outstanding charges. CNN cannot independently verify the status of all those named on AAPP’s list
Among them are civilians, activists, journalists, writers, monks, student leaders, as well as politicians and officials in the ousted National League for Democracy Party (NLD)-led government, according to the AAPP.
Maung Thar Cho did not have time to anticipate being seized by the authorities, but the thousands who turn out on the streets every day are working fastidiously to evade the same type of fate while opposing a coup that abruptly ended Myanmar’s short and uneasy transition into a fledgling democracy.
Many feel they are fighting for their very future — especially those who remember the more than half a century of brutal, isolationist military rule.
Myanmar’s military did not respond to CNN’s repeated requests for comment.